A trading nation is an economically powerful country where nearly a complete percent of its gross domestic product is generated by foreign trade. Many nations, such as the United States, are quite reliant on foreign trade. The U.S. economy depends on foreign investment, both direct and indirect, to fuel economic growth. However, even though many nations rely on exporting, few have the same political clout as the U.S.
A trading nation’s currency always acts as a universal currency, allowing transactions to take place without delay. Although the value of a nation’s currency changes according to the economy of that nation, it is commonly believed that any given nation has the power to manipulate the value of its currency in order to gain an advantage over other nations. However, this practice only becomes possible when a nation has a strong economy that manufactures enough goods to sell on the open market. For example, a nation that relies on natural resources and the sale of these resources could increase its gross domestic product (GDP) rapidly, thereby enabling it to sell its currency and take on new clients.
Unlike developing nations, which have limited sources of exportable goods, a trading nation has abundant sources of raw materials. Some countries even have enormous amounts of foreign reserves, allowing them to float freely in the foreign exchange market. One of the main reasons why trading nations seek to maintain a strong dollar is because the U.S. dollar is widely recognized as the global “leader.” If the U.S. Dollar weakens in relation to other currencies, other countries fear that their trade will be affected and their overall economy will crumble. This causes the U.S. to respond with protectionist measures that typically cut off trade privileges.
A trading nation’s central bank is tasked with providing interest rates that are favourable to the domestic financial system of that nation. If the central bank does not provide favourable interest rates, it could result in capital flight from that nation. As a result, trading nations often have to curb spending and over-all economic activity. The goal of a central bank is to ensure that inflation does not rise to invaluable levels. In addition to this, if a trading nation’s currency depreciates against other currencies, it benefits the domestic economy by making goods and services more affordable.
In order to become a trading nation, it is necessary for a nation to develop the right mix of assets that will allow it to effectively float in the foreign exchange market. One of the most effective ways to do this is through the purchase of assets. In the past, trading nations relied on commodity trading such as oil and gold. Today, you may consider commodities as common trading partners such as aluminum, copper, sugar, and steel.
One of the most important things a trading nation needs to develop is an active and robust central-bank. For centuries, countries like England, Spain, and France developed an elaborate system to monitor and intervene in the markets to keep them from being abused. A trading nation needs similar policies in place in order to successfully manage its currency. This includes having a central-bank with the ability to make interest rates that are effective and inflationary enough to offset the effects of economic turbulence. Ultimately, a trading nation must have an independent and well-sourced central-bank in order to operate properly. The importance of central-bank independence cannot be overemphasized.